Sunday, 29 December 2019

The black chokeberries

To the most important polyphenols of black chokeberries belong phenolic acids and flavonoids such as anthocyanins, flavanols, flavonols and proanthocyanidins 43 As the most significant phenolic compounds were identified from the group of phenolic acids hydroxycinnamic acids, especially neochlorogenic acid, from anthocyanins, there were cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside; from proanthocyanidins, procyanidin B1. Flavanols (epicatechin) and flavonols (mainly quercetin glycosides) are minor components of black chokeberry fruits 43 , 48. The total polyphenols (TP) in A. melanocarpa berries were quantified as higher than for many other remarkable berries, including blueberries, red raspberries, red currant, strawberries and blackberries 44 , 46 , 48 The comparison of TP content in various important fruit berries confirms that the amount of TP in A. melanocarpa berries is similar to black currant (Ribes nigrum) content, about 2-4-fold of the content in blackberry (Rubus fruticosus), 4-fold for blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), 3-8-fold for red raspberry (Rubus idaeus) and 10-times more than in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa). In recent history, black chokeberry has been extensively produced in Russia as a small fruit, used in juice products (mixed with apple juice), wine, compote and pickles ( Kask ). It has been commercially grown in Europe where its fruits are used in juice, alcoholic beverages, energizing beverages, and as a food colorant ( Bussieres et al. ). Sweden initiated studies to develop this crop in 1986 ( Jeppsson and Johansson ). Knudson notes that fruits can be canned whole, the juice can be used in fruit drinks and jelly, and extracts can be used as natural colorants in the food industry.

The use of black chokeberry fruits as a source of food colorants has spurred recent research. Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry) has attracted scientific interest due to its deep purple, almost black pigmentation that arises from dense contents of polyphenols , especially anthocyanins Total polyphenol content is 1752 mg per 100 g dry weight, 22 anthocyanin content is 1480 mg per 100 g dry weight, and proanthocyanidin concentration is 664 mg per 100 g fresh weight. For more information, see: Antioxidant Activity and Polyphenols of Aronia in Comparison to Other Berry Species, a study of antioxidant compounds found in aronia and other berries (Jakobek et al. 2007).

The small dark berries of the Aronia melanocarpa plant are packed with nutrients and antioxidants, such as vitamin C and anthocyanins, in some countries, dried Aronia berries are used to make antioxidant-rich herbal tea. USDA research shows Aronia berries has one of the highest antioxidant content of any fruits. However, in a study by Frejnagel and Juskiewicz 40 differences in weights of the cecal contents were not observed with a chokeberry extract, but when an extract of polyphenols from green tea was fed, an increase in cecal content weight was observed 40 In another study, feeding the polyphenol extract from chokeberries altered cecal parameters and metabolism as shown by a reduction in cecal digesta pH and ammonia concentrations in comparison to control animals 40 In a previous study by Heyman and Axling 25 in which diets were supplemented with one of 8 different berries the mass of the cecum, including its contents, was increased in all berry supplemented groups compared to the control diet with the exception of the raspberry supplemented group 25 Our data support these findings, which could be due a change in microbial fermentative activity in the cecum 41 , however further research is needed to determine the mechanisms of action.

Aronia melanocarpa

As an example, PhytoPharm Klęka SA (Klęka, Poland) is the marketing authorization holder for a THMP called Bioaron C® syrup, which contains, per five ml dose, 1,920 mg extract of Aloe arborescens (Xanthorrhoeaceae) and 51 mg ascorbic acid (vitamin C) as the active ingredients with 1,170 mg of Aroniae succus (concentrated black chokeberry juice) listed as an excipient ingredient. The chokeberry bush is used ornamentally in the United States.9 In England, black chokeberry received the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Merit in 1972, primarily because it has three seasons of interest (white flowers in the spring, green foliage in the summer, and fruits in the late summer and autumn).9.

The pomace (the solid remains of the fruit after the juice has been pressed) is suitable for the extraction of dyestuff (dyestuff content: four to 10 g/kg) and extracts of the pomace are used as food color pigment components of foods and pharmaceutical products. Black Chokeberry - Aronia melanocarpa cv. - €6 per plant. Regardless of how they are consumed, the berries are known as superfruit,” containing higher levels of antioxidants than other fruit commonly given that designation, such as elderberries, black currants, cranberries, and blueberries.

Aronia melanocarpa, or simply aronia,” is an attractive shrub that has recently been gaining more attention in the Midwest - its berries are very high in antioxidants thought to be beneficial for human health. PMID: 18044341 Effect of anthocyanins from Aronia melanocarpa on blood pressure, concentration of endothelin-1 and lipids in patients with metabolic syndrome PMID: 18231940 Comparative anti-platelet and antioxidant properties of polyphenol-rich extracts from: berries of Aronia melanocarpa, seeds of grape and bark of Yucca schidigera in vitro. Just a very few: PMID: 15623784 Anti-inflammatory effects of aronia extract on rat endotoxin-induced uveitis PMID: 16860979 Up-regulation of tumor suppressor carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells following repetitive exposure to dietary levels of a polyphenol-rich chokeberry juice.

Poorly known economic plants of Canada 46. Black chokeberry (Photinia melanocarpa). The delivery of plant polyphenols extracted from A. melanocarpa fruit significantly improves the dyslipidemia triggered by diabetes mellitus and the microangiopathic lesions. These berries are sometimes referred to as Chokeberries, and are quite different than the similar fruits known as Chokecherries; the latter belongs to the plant Prunus virginiana.

Three species called 'Aronia', with Melanocarpa (Black Chokeberries) being the most commonly supplemented and commercially grown. Black chokeberries are a good food choice for people that want to consume more antioxidants and anthocyanins. Aronia melanocarpa, commonly known as the black chokeberry, is a sour berry with a high anthocyanin and anti-oxidant content.

A display of black chokeberries can be seen in many areas of the Garden, including the Regenstein Fruit & Vegetable Garden, the Native Plant Garden, and the Elizabeth Hubert Malott Japanese Garden. The leaves of black chokeberry emerge a medium green, followed in early spring by a showy display of clustered white flowers borne in corymbs 2 to 2 1/2 inches across. The black variety contains the highest levels of Anthocyanins, which is the antioxidant compound most famously found in blueberries.

Superfood Aronia

Touted as a superfood —and better than other superfoods such as acai berries since they're native to North America—aronia berry aficionados claim that the berries are practically a miracle food helping to diminish one's risk of just about every health problem, from colon cancer to high blood pressure to heart disease, while increasing all of those good buzz-wordy things your body needs, including boosting the immune system and providing anti-oxidants They're marketed as "superberries" and "mega-high in antioxidants." All Aerona products are prepared from aronia berries (chokeberry) commercially grown on our own farm, in a natural and healthy way without the use of pesticides or fertilisers.

Aronia plants are a hardy bush with green leaves that turn deep red in the Autumn, with white blossoms and round black juicy berries. A mature (four year and older) aronia berry plant can produce 6kg berries per plants making it possible to produce more than 20 tons of fresh fruit per Ha. The study samples were fruits of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) cv. Galicjanka harvested in 2016.

Citation: Kobus Z, Nadulski R, Wilczyński K, Kozak M, Guz T, Rydzak L (2019) Effect of the black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) juice acquisition method on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity. The study samples were fruits of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) cv. Galicjanka. Effect of the black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott) juice acquisition method on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant activity.

In Canada, black chokeberry (dried or fresh) is classified as a medicinal ingredient of licensed natural health products (NHPs) requiring pre-marketing authorization from the Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) and manufacture in compliance with NHP good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Black chokeberry is one of the most frequently cultivated Aronia species, in addition to red chokeberry (A. arbutifolia; also a native of North America), the tetraploid large-fruited black chokeberry (A. x mitschurinii; developed in Russia), the interspecific hybrid purple chokeberry (A. x prunifolia), and the intergenus hybrids of black chokeberry with whitebeam (Sorbus aria, Rosaceae) = x Sorbaronia dippelii and with American mountain ash (S. americana) = x Sorbaronia sorbifolia.5. The Aronia is a genus of deciduous woody shrubs that harbors a fruit bearing species collectively referred to as chokeberry plants.

Also known as: Aronia, Aronia Berries, Aronia Melanocarpa, Black Chokeberry Fruit. The use of black chokeberry fruits as a source of food colorants has spurred recent research. The small dark berries of the Aronia melanocarpa plant are packed with nutrients and antioxidants, such as vitamin C and anthocyanins, and offer wonderful health benefits for those who want to improve their health through better nutrition.

With science demonstrating significant benefits to health, farmers planting large acreage and the media increasingly boosting its fortunes, it's only a short matter of time before aronia, the North American super berry, leaps to prominence in juices, jams, jellies and many other products. Black chokeberry is adorned with larger leaves, fruits and flowers, and ends the growing season with a more spectacular fall color than the red chokeberry.